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Energy Management and Performance Evaluation of Fuel Cell Battery Based Electric Vehicle


Ahmed Khadhraoui, Tarek SELMI, and Adnene Cherif


Vol. 22  No. 3  pp. 37-44


Plug-in Hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) show great potential to reduce gas emission, improve fuel efficiency and offer more driving range flexibility. Moreover, PHEV help to preserve the eco-system, climate changes and reduce the high demand for fossil fuels. To address this; some basic components and energy resources have been used, such as batteries and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCs). However, the FC remains unsatisfactory in terms of power density and response. In light of the above, an electric storage system (ESS) seems to be a promising solution to resolve this issue, especially when it comes to the transient phase. In addition to the FC, a storage system made-up of an ultra-battery UB is proposed within this paper. The association of the FC and the UB lead to the so-called Fuel Cell Battery Electric Vehicle (FCBEV). The energy consumption model of a FCBEV has been built considering the power losses of the fuel cell, electric motor, the state of charge (SOC) of the battery, and brakes. To do so, the implementing a reinforcement-learning energy management strategy (EMS) has been carried out and the fuel cell efficiency has been optimized while minimizing the hydrogen fuel consummation per 100km. Within this paper the adopted approach over numerous driving cycles of the FCBEV has shown promising results.


Fuel cell; Electric vehicle; Eco-driving; Speed profile optimization.